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are invented for the purpose of abolishing the patriarchal discriminatory construction of gender, but they end up denying difference to women.

Thus even though Mao's slogan "Women hold half of the sky," became extremely popular, most women worked, and women did almost every kind of job that men did, this seeming equality also denied women the right they deserved: to be considered women and different from men.

Also despite the rhetoric of gender equality, the reality, especially in the countryside, was the continued gender distinction and inequality between the two sexes.   Communism purportedly was to establish a completely new society based on new universal principles. Born during the New Culture Movement in the 1920s, Chinese Communism bore the imprint of this movement and its iconoclastic attack on Confucian learning and Chinese tradition. 

17. Political Movements from the 1950s to the 1970s

The Communist call for equality could not overcome the deep-seated mistrust and lack of communication between the urban/educated and rural/illiterate Communists. Reflected at a higher level, the question was, what goals should Communist policies should reflect---a technocratic focus on economic development, or a continuous emphasis on political revolutions and mass mobilization? In the face of foreign threat (e.g., the Korean War, 1950-53, and the possible U.S. invasion of China via Taiwan and north Korea), Chinese Communists who advocated continuous revolutions often triumphed over dissenting colleagues who argued for a technocratic approach that focused on the urban areas and on economic/industrial development. A significant number of Chinese Communists leaders resorted to the traditional strategies of mass political mobilization, which they had used in the 1940s and early 1950s. During the 1940s, the Communists used this form of mass mobilization to conduct land redistribution: in villages where large wealthy landlords existed, they would conduct mass meetings where poor peasants were asked to go up one by one to empty their grievances against the landlord, e.g. charging high interest rates on loans, high rents on tenant farmers, etc. These "mass criticism" meetings were followed by the confiscation and redistribution of the landlord's land. Many poor peasants joined the Communist Party after such land redistribution to protect their newly acquired land. After the Communist takeover, similar mass movements were conducted such as the ones mentioned in the links below:

Early Political Campaigns

The Anti-rightist campaign

The Great Leap Forward (1958)

Cultural Revolution Campaigns

Many of these campaigns sought to build unity in the new Communist republic through a definition of who were the "people" and who were the "enemies of the people." The “people” included those of good class background: poor and middle class peasants, workers, soldiers---hence the massive social classification

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