of school teachers, and then their leaders and their leaders’ leaders, which would ultimately get at the technocrats at the top of the government. Therefore following the criticism of school teachers, the second wave of the Cultural Revolution was labeling all those in the Communist leadership who advocated a technocratic approach as “capitalist-roaders.” The procedure is as follows:
Criticism of the school teachers: Many schools, from primary to tertiary, were shut down from 1966 to 1968.
Criticism of the capitalist-roaders, from senior- to middle-level Communist leaders (often referred to as cadres in English) Mao charged that there was a conspiracy against him within the Party, perpetrated by those who were high in the party leadership and who wanted to restore capitalism. This accusation resulted in the arrest and death of hundreds of thousands of Communist cadres from the middle level up, not to mention the grassroots level Communists.
The forms of criticism taken during the Cultural Revolution included massive criticism meetings, during and after which those criticized were often forced to wear tall hats and were paraded around. Children of the denounced were often asked to separate from their parents. Picture posters and large word posters (dazibao), and loudspeakers at work units became the means to communicate the latest developments of the CR. The Communist state mobilized the masses through instilling fear (“you are next”), social mobility (the promotion of those who were most actively involved in the revolutionary activities), encouraging telling on one another (some did so to settle personal scores). In the years before 1968, the main force Mao relied on to implement the revolution was the Red Guards, who initially came from high school students in Beijing, and soon included all professions in the cities. The Red Guards, however, soon broke into many factions standing for different figures in the Communist Central party committee, and often settled their differences with armed fights.
Mao also wanted to transform Chinese culture through the CR. With the overthrow of the technocrats from the Communist party, Mao wanted to usher in a completely revolutionary culture in China, which was why it was called a "Cultural Revolution." In those years, massive criticism of feudal and bourgeois cultures was followed by the banning of any and all non-revolutionary music from the West (except from Communist countries like the USSR, Yugoslavia, and Albania), and non-revolutionary or non-patriotic music from pre-1949 China. Revolutionary songs emerged in massive quantities, often Mao’s poems or quotations set to music. The traditional Peking Opera, a regional musical genre that often drew its themes from history, was now borrowed to be “filled with new wine.” Mao decided the operas were too full of emperors, generals, talented scholars and beautiful women, and did not represent the masses, therefore they should be reformed: hence the launching of eight revolutionary operas.
Another of Mao’s vision was to build a new society that would bridge the gap between the country and the city, and the educated and the illiterate. To do so, he sent millions of Chinese high school graduates to the countryside in the name of reeducation. Starting from 1967, the graduating classes of junior and senior high schools were required to