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Allow British subjects extraterritoriality in China (meaning British subjects were not subject to Chinese law in China and could be tried by their British peers or expedited to Britain for trial).

The First Opium War was followed by a series of humiliating defeats of China by foreigners in the second half of the 19th century: the Second Opium War (1858-60); the Sino-French War (1884-85); the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), and finally, the retaliation of the Eight Allied Forces against China (1900-01).  

The Second Opium War (1856-60)

After the First Opium War, despite the Chinese concessions to the British and later to other European countries, the British found insufficient change in China's attitude toward the foreign world, and hoped to expand British forces in northern China (the five treaty ports in the first treaty were all in the south). The murder of a French missionary and the seizure of a British ship were the timely pretexts that saw the launching of a joint Anglo-French military force that attacked and captured the city of Tianjin. Treaty negotiations followed and resulted in an agreement opening numerous new ports for trade, legalizing the opium trade, and making various other provisions as demanded by the westerners. By the terms of the Treaty of Tianjin (1858) the Chinese opened new ports to trading and allowed foreigners with passports to travel in the interior. Christians gained the right to spread their faith and hold property, thus opening up another means of western penetration. The United States and Russia gained the same privileges in separate treaties. The treaty was agreed to locally, but the Emperor’s court in Beijing refused to ratify it. This resulted in the British/French joint forces' seizure of Beijing, forcing the emperor Xianfeng (Hsian Feng) to flee the city, together with his queen and favorite concubine, the later empress dowager Cixi (Tzu Hsi). The emperor's summer palace was burnt down by Lord Elgin, commander of the British troops in Beijing. And the Chinese government had to agree to the content of the Treaty of Tianjin.

The Sino-French War (1883-1885)

The Sino-French War (1883-1885) was fought over Vietnam, traditionally a Chinese protectorate. It ended in Chinese failure and recognition of a joint protectorate in Vietnam between China and France.

The Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

The Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) was fought with Japan over Korea, traditionally a Chinese protectorate. It ended in Chinese failure and Japanese colonization of Korea and the Chinese province of Taiwan. In the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed at the end of the war, China had to pay an indemnity of 200,000,000 taels (about $200 million) to Japan and open the ports of Shashi, Chongqing, Suzhou, and Kangzhou to Japanese trade. The Triple Intervention (1895), secured by Russia, France, and Germany, subsequently required Japan to retrocede the Liaotung Peninsula to China in return for an additional indemnity of 30,000,000 taels.

The Boxer Uprising and the Eight Allied Forces Intervention 1900-1901

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