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something, and according to Aristotle, you cannot have one without the other. However, in modern times, ti and yong were separated. Ti referred to Chinese learning, which primarily consisted of four branches related to the study of Confucian learning: history, literature, philosophy, and philology. Basic Confucian tenets of human behavior were upheld. Central to the essence of Chinese culture were certain values extracted from Confucian teachings, such as ren.

The Confucian idea of ren (benevolence, humaneness):

Just like love is central to Christianity, so ren (translated variously as benevolence or humaneness) was central to Confucian learning. It was the benchmark for a human being, hence its translation into "humaneness."

Ren referred to a system of proper behavior toward different people.

Ren and its implications:

To practice ren, one is loyal to the emperor, obedient to one’s father, respects the elderly and one’s senior, loves and cares for those who are junior, and proves trustworthy to one’s friends and peers. It is a system of interpersonal relationships.

To achieve ren one has to rid oneself of the tendency of free will and selfishness, and practice self-cultivation, such as through painting, music, and calligraphy.

Debates over the degree of Westernization in China:

In modern Chinese usage, since ti and yong were separated, Chinese learning (Confucian learning) could be the ti while Western learning became its application, the yong. The application of the ti/yong formula was a way to justify borrowing from Western culture and resolve the confusion the Chinese had in such borrowings, which raised questions such as, where does Chinese culture stand? and what about Chinese values when we borrow from Western values? The ti/yong forumula provided a much needed way to differentiate between the priorities of Chinese and Western culture so that borrowing from the latter would not negate the former.

The ti/yong dichotomy as an approach to cultural borrowing continued on and off throughout much of the 20th century. The initial decision to learn from the West in the late 19th century led to vast changes in Chinese society: the establishment of a modern school system in 1905; the overthrow of the imperial government in 1911 and the ushering in of a republic; and the introduction of modern Western medicine, science, politics, philosophy, history, literature and many other subjects that had initially been deemed not relevant to the building of Chinese strength and prosperity. By 1935, there was a formal declaration that equated Westernization with modernization, although that did not silence the debate over what aspects

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