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Marketing Exam Study!

  • 2)

    putting together a strong enough team to direct the process

  • 3)

    creating an appropriate vision of where the organization needs to go

  • 4)

    communication that new vision broadly

  • 5)

    empowering employees to act on that vision

  • 6)

    producing sufficient short term results to create credibility and counter cynicism

  • 7)

    building momentum and using that to tackle the tougher change problems

  • 8)

    anchoring the new behaviours in the organizational culture

Evolution versus turnaround

Transformation of an organization can take place in two pays: evolution or turnaround


  • in business context involves continual mutations designed to ensure survival of the fittest

  • management must evolve focus strategy of the firm to take advantage of changing condition and new technologies

  • firm can’t remain successful without a continuing series of mutations


  • leaders (usually new ones) try to bring failing organizations back from the brink of failure

  • advantageous to bring a new CEO in from outside the organization in turnaround situations

  • 4 hurdles leaders face in reorienting and formulating strategy:

    • 1.

      Cognitive hurdles- when people cannot agree on the causes of problems and the need for change

    • 2.

      Resource hurdles- when the organization is constrained by limited funds

    • 3.

      Motivational hurdles- prevent a strategy’s rapid execution when employees are reluctant to make needed changes

    • 4.

      Political hurdles- organized resistance from powerful vested interests seeking to protect their positions

Leadership, Culture, and climate

Organizational Culture:

  • Shared perception or themes regarding what is important in the organization

  • Shared values about what is right and wrong

  • Shared understanding about what works and what doesn’t work

  • Shared beliefs and assumptions about why these things are important

  • Shared styles of working and relation to others

Organizational Climate

  • o

    Represents the tangible surface layer of the organization’s underlying culture

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