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Role of Vitamin K

    Vitamin K (hydroquinone , the active form) is involved as a cofactor in the carboxylation of certain glutamate residues in proteins to form γ-carboxyglutamate residues (Gla-residues). Gla-residues are usually involved in binding calcium. The Gla-residues are essential for the biological activity of :

Blood coagulation: (factors II (prothrombin), IX, X , VII anticoagulant proteins C and S, and the thrombin-targeting protein Z ) must be convered to γ-carboxyglutamate and bind to Ca to form clot.  This is the most important role of Vitamin K.

Bone metabolism:

Bone Gla-protein Osteocalcin: Regulate incorporation of Calcium Phosphate into bones.

Matrix Gla protein (MGP)]: Clearance of extracellular Calcium to protect against soft tissue calcification.

Vascular biology.

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