Table 1 Chemical Symbols and Their Origins
Origin of Name For Dimitri Mendeleev The Latin name for lead
The Norse god of thunder is Thor.
For Poland, where Marie Curie, a famous scientist, was born
From Greek words meaning “water former”
Hydrargyrum means “liquid silver” in Greek.
Aurum means “shining dawn” in Latin.
Named using the IUPAC naming system
Symbols for the Elements The symbols for the elements are either one- or two-letter abbreviations, often based on the element name. For example, V is the symbol for vana- dium, and Sc is the symbol for scan- dium. Sometimes the symbols don’t match the names. Examples are Ag for silver and Na for sodium. In those cases, the symbol might come from Greek or Latin names for the ele- ments. Some elements are named for scientists such as Lise Meitner (meit- nerium, Mt). Some are named for geo- graphic locations such as France (francium, Fr).
Newly synthesized elements are given a temporary name and 3-letter symbol that is related to the element’s atomic number. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted this system in 1978. Once the discovery of the element is ver- ified, the discoverers can choose a per- manent name. Table 1 shows the origin of some element names and symbols.
Development of the Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendeleev published the first version of the periodic table in 1869.
Mendeleev left three gaps on the periodic table for missing elements.
Moseley arranged Mendeleev’s table accord- ing to atomic number, not by atomic mass.
Today’s Periodic Table
The periodic table is divided into sections.
A period is a row of elements whose proper- ties change gradually and predictably.
Groups 1 and 2 along with Groups 13–18 are called representative elements.
Groups 3–12 are called transition elements.
Evaluate the elements in period 4 to show how the physical state changes as the atomic number increases.
Describe where the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are located in the periodic table.
Classify each of the following elements as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid: Fe, Li, B, Cl, Si, Na, and Ni.
Define what an element key contains.
Think Critically How would the modern periodic table be different if elements were arranged by average atomic mass instead of by atomic number?
6. Solve One-Step Equations What is the difference in atomic mass of iodine and magnesium?
K CHAPTER 4 The Periodic Table