X hits on this document

PDF document

Skyscrapers, Neon Lights, and the Periodic Table - page 9 / 30

72 views

0 shares

0 downloads

0 comments

9 / 30

Name

Symbol

Mendelevium

Md

Lead

Pb

Thorium

Th

Polonium

Po

Hydrogen

H

Mercury

Hg

Gold

Au

Unununium

Uuu

Table 1 Chemical Symbols and Their Origins

Origin of Name For Dimitri Mendeleev The Latin name for lead

is plumbum.

The Norse god of thunder is Thor.

For Poland, where Marie Curie, a famous scientist, was born

From Greek words meaning “water former”

Hydrargyrum means “liquid silver” in Greek.

Aurum means “shining dawn” in Latin.

Named using the IUPAC naming system

Symbols for the Elements The symbols for the elements are either one- or two-letter abbreviations, often based on the element name. For example, V is the symbol for vana- dium, and Sc is the symbol for scan- dium. Sometimes the symbols don’t match the names. Examples are Ag for silver and Na for sodium. In those cases, the symbol might come from Greek or Latin names for the ele- ments. Some elements are named for scientists such as Lise Meitner (meit- nerium, Mt). Some are named for geo- graphic locations such as France (francium, Fr).

Newly synthesized elements are given a temporary name and 3-letter symbol that is related to the element’s atomic number. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted this system in 1978. Once the discovery of the element is ver- ified, the discoverers can choose a per- manent name. Table 1 shows the origin of some element names and symbols.

Summary

Development of the Periodic Table

  • Dmitri Mendeleev published the first version of the periodic table in 1869.

  • Mendeleev left three gaps on the periodic table for missing elements.

  • Moseley arranged Mendeleev’s table accord- ing to atomic number, not by atomic mass.

Today’s Periodic Table

  • The periodic table is divided into sections.

  • A period is a row of elements whose proper- ties change gradually and predictably.

  • Groups 1 and 2 along with Groups 13–18 are called representative elements.

  • Groups 3–12 are called transition elements.

Self Check

  • 1.

    Evaluate the elements in period 4 to show how the physical state changes as the atomic number increases.

  • 2.

    Describe where the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are located in the periodic table.

  • 3.

    Classify each of the following elements as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid: Fe, Li, B, Cl, Si, Na, and Ni.

  • 4.

    Define what an element key contains.

  • 5.

    Think Critically How would the modern periodic table be different if elements were arranged by average atomic mass instead of by atomic number?

6. Solve One-Step Equations What is the difference in atomic mass of iodine and magnesium?

104

  • K CHAPTER 4 The Periodic Table

bookk.msscience.com/self_check_quiz

Document info
Document views72
Page views73
Page last viewedThu Dec 08 01:10:01 UTC 2016
Pages30
Paragraphs1401
Words10241

Comments