Chapter 4: The Construction Process of Segmental Bridges
18.104.22.168 American Concrete Institute
The American Concrete Institute (ACI) issues so-called “Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries” (ACI 1995, p1) that are developed and updated by expert committees. Apart from the general building code ACI 318 (ACI 1999), the ACI 343R-95 “Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures” (ACI 1995) is of prime importance for bridge structures. It covers functional requirements, including even a short section on bridge aesthetics, economics, and erection, materials, basic considerations for construction works, load cases, design aspects, characteristics of prestressed and precast concrete, substructure and superstructure, and reinforcement details. Initial sections on requirements for bridges and construction considerations provide a brief overview of topics related to this study. ACI 343R-95 also gives reference where applicable to other institutions that issue codes and regulations. ACI 345-82 “Standard Practice for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction” is referenced.
22.214.171.124 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Another important organization is the American Association of State Highway and Transportation and Highway Officials (AASHTO). AASHTO issues the “Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges” (AASHTO 1996) and “Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges” (AASHTO 1998b), along with other manual on construction practices and specifications for bridge and highway projects (AASHTO 1980), (AASHTO 1985). Furthermore, AASHTO provides engineers with detailed information on sampling and testing of materials and their properties for use in transportation projects (AASHTO 1998a). Concrete and its ingredients, structural steel, steel bolts, metal alloys, reinforcement bars, soil, and timber are amongst the materials covered. In addition to these topics, testing equipment and procedures are also described in the comprehensive volume.
In particular, the “Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges” (AASHTO 1998b) have been developed with respect to the growing number of segmental bridges to provide information to bridge engineers. The very first section of this guide (AASHTO 1998b, p6) states that normally “the provisions of the Sixteenth Edition of the