Chapter 4: The Construction Process of Segmental Bridges
Values for the coefficient for earth pressure E and the coefficient for dead load D are provided in the explanations for Table 3.22.1A. Applicable in the case of members in bridge superstructures would be E = 0.5 to 1.3 for different cases of earth pressure and D = 0.75 to 1.0 “For Column Design” or “D = 1.0 for flexural and tension members”, respectively (AASHTO 1996, p30).
18.104.22.168 American Society for Testing and Materials
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) also provides comprehensive specifications on the manifold aspects of materials testing and gives information on properties of construction materials, e.g. structural steel, reinforcement bars, and concrete and its ingredients (ASTM 1996).
22.214.171.124 American Welding Society
The American Welding Society (AWS) provides standards for welding of reinforcing bars, including information on material characteristics, limit stresses, splice details, quality of workmanship and inspections, and on the different welding techniques (AWS 1975).
126.96.36.199 Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
The Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI 1996) gives detailed information on formwork systems as well as reinforcement bars and welded wire fabric.