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lii  Similarly, researchers assume that when young Canadians identify the major election issues, they are also naming their most important concerns.  It is possible, however, that youth have other serious political concerns, but would never identify them as “election issues” because they simply do not believe the Canadian government can (or will) address these problems sufficiently.  Such issues include corporate globalization and irresponsibility, the growing global divide between the “haves” and the “have nots,” and the production of genetically modified organisms.  These are all areas around which young people are mobilizing outside of Parliament.

liii  Barnard, Campbell and Smith, 2003.

liv  Smith et al., 2001: 14.  

lv  Smith et al., 2001: 14.

lvi  Gidengil et al., 2004.

lvii  Milner, 2002: 2.

lviii  Milner, 2002:3.

lix  Kubow, 1997: 4.

lx  Beauvais, McKay and Seddon, 2001: 20.

lxi  Kahne and Westheimer, 2003: 28.

lxii  Westheimer and Kahne, 2003: 31.

lxiii  Kubow, 1997: 38.

lxiv  Westheimer and Kahne, 2004: 4.  See, especially, the work of Kathy Bickmore (1999a; 1999b; 2003).

lxv  Levin, 2000: 3.

lxvi  Kubow, 1997: 3-4.

lxvii  Westheimer and Kahne, 2004.

lxviii  See, for example, CIRCLE (http://www.civicyouth.org) and Ayers, Hunt and Quinn, 1998.

lxix  Hess, 2004; Bickmore, 1999a; 1999b; 2003.

lxx  See, for example, Osborne, 1997: 39-67.

lxxi  Osborne, 1991.

lxxii  Canada, 2003.

lxxiii  Manitoba Education, Training and Youth, 2002.

lxxiv  Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1999.

lxxv  Alberta Learning, 1989: 17.

lxxvi  Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1999: 48.

lxxvii  Government of the Northwest Territories, 2002: 45.

lxxviii  British Columbia Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, 2006: C-3.

lxxix  Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2003: 9.

lxxx  New Brunswick Department of Education, 1998: 2.

lxxxi  Gouvernement du Québec, 1991: 5.

lxxxii  Government of the Northwest Territories, 2002: 26.

lxxxiii  Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1999: 48.

lxxxiv  New Brunswick Department of Education, 1998: 53.

lxxxv  British Columbia Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, 2006b: 2.

lxxxvi  Pammett and LeDuc, 2003: 53.

lxxxvii  British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2001.

lxxxviii  Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 2001: 6.

lxxxix  Alberta Education, 2002: 13.

xc  See, for example, Parker, 1996; Kahne and Westheimer, 2003; Westheimer and Kahne 2003 and 2004.

xci  CAMET, n.d.: 16.

xcii  Boyte, 2002: 13.

xciii  See, for example, Hess, 2004; Silverman, 2003; Westheimer, 2007.

xciv  Milner, 2002.

xcv  See, for example, Westheimer and Kahne, 2003; Westheimer, 2007 (particularly Diana Hess’s contribution); and a recent notable exception in the Canadian field, Cook and Westheimer, 2006.

xcvi  Hess, 2004.

xcvii Wolin, 1989: 139.

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