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pain scale to utilize. i. If the pediatric patient is able to clearly communicate, the adult scale may be utilized.
Care must be made with this group to ensure that the patient’s subjective measure of pain is not lower than the practitioner’s objective assessment.
Patient education must include the parents or guardians. They need to be educated about how much pain their child will anticipate during and after major and minor procedures and what interventions will be implemented to prevent or minimize their child’s pain.
Efforts are made to take pediatric patients to a treatment room for any painful procedures. This allows them to continue to feel safe in their own patient room.
Many elderly individuals consider pain to be a normal part of aging.
Many are reluctant to report pain due to ageist attitudes (i.e., old people complain about pain a lot).
Many fear being perceived as bothersome, a hypochondriac or an addict.
Pain is often under treated and under reported in this population.
Polypharmacy often is an issue for many geriatric persons and therefore need close monitoring for potential drug interactions with pain medication.
N. Cultural Considerations: consider the cultural aspects of pain and pain management. 1. Consider language barriers a. Identify what cultural differences and potential barriers exist. b. Identify decision makers and family members with healthcare backgrounds to be used as resources. Use translation services as needed. z
Consider the patient and family social organization, or that family structure, head of household, gender roles, status/roles of elderly, roles of children, adolescents, husbands/wives, parents, extended family, influences on decision-making process, importance of social organization and network.
Identify ways to achieve treatment and care outcomes for the patient while at the same time supporting and appreciating the culture.
Plan for care with sensitivity to the differences that may present advantages and disadvantages.
Consider the patient's health beliefs, practices, and practitioners.
These provide meaning/cause of illness/health and living with a life threatening illness,
They may influence expectations about the use of Western treatment and the health care team
They may require religious/spiritual beliefs and practices, use of traditional healers/practitioners, expectations of practitioners, loss of body part/body image, acceptance of blood transfusions/organ donations, sick role and health-seeking behaviors
Consider religion and spirituality.
Identify the patient's dominant religion, religious beliefs, rituals, and ceremonies.
Support patient in the use of prayer, meditation or other symbolic activities identified as sources of strength.
Consider spiritual care referral.
Physicians and Licensed Independent Practitioners, Nurses, and other healthcare providers