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Table 1: Provincial profiles .................................................................. Figure 1: Map of study provinces ...........................................................

.......................... 16 .......................... 17

Former UN Special Representative Kai Eide, US Senator John Kerry and President press conference concering 2009’s presidential election...............................

Hamid Karzai during a .......................... 22

Women vote in 2009’s presidential election.............................................. Officials examine evidence of fraud after 2010’s parliamentary election ........... Police guard a polling centre during 2009’s presidential election .................... Campaign posters crowd street furniture in Mazar-i-Sharif, 2010 .................... The Wolesi Jirga in session ..................................................................

.......................... 27 .......................... 29 .......................... 35 .......................... 38 .......................... 47

AREU Synthesis Paper Series

List of Tables, Figures and Photos

azadi freedom

Acronyms

ANSF FDG IEC ISAF NGO NSP PC PDPA

Glossary

Afghan National Security Forces focus group discussion Independent Election Commission International Security Assistance Force nongovernmental organisation National Solidarity Programme provincial council People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan

charchaokat-i-Islam literally, “the four fixed edges of Islam,” used to signify the concept of an “Islamic framework”

jirga

council of community elders, normally convened on an ad-hoc basis to deal with specific problems

Loya Jirga

“Grand Council”; a national-level meeting of elders. Historically, these have been called by national leaders as a means to validate their authority or acquire a stamp of approval for new policies

Meshrano Jirga

“House of Elders”; Afghanistan’s upper house of parliament, consisting of presidential appointees and selected provincial council members

Perakh Bansat shura Wolesi Jirga

completely representative/inclusive government community council “House of the People”; Afghanistan’s lower house of parliament, consisting of elected MPs

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