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15(25):4. June 2005. Availability: Available from Merion Publications, Inc. 2900 Horizon Drive, Box 61556, King of Prussia, PA 19406-0956. (610) 278-1400. E-mail: advance@merion.com. Website: www.advanceweb.com. Language: English. Abstract: Based on test-specific medical savings analyses, children with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) should undergo GJB2 genetic testing first, as opposed to children with milder types, who should have imaging tests. These findings were presented recently at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) and are discussed in this article. Subject Category: Hearing. Descriptors: Children With Hearing Loss. Hearing Research. Congenital Hearing Loss. Hearing Impairment.


New Minimal Approach in Cochlear Implant Surgery: The

Colombian Experience.

Author(s): Almario, J. E., Lora, J. G., Prieto, J. A. Source: Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 133(1):147-149. July 2005. Availability: Available from Elsevier Science. (800) 654-2452. Fax: (212) 633-3820. E-mail: reprints@elsevier.com. Website: www.us.elsevierhealth.com. Language: English. Abstract: This article describes a study that illustrated the advantages of a new skin incision for cochlear implant surgery for children and adults and its feasibility for the cochlear implants currently available. The authors prospectively evaluated five female and seven male patients who underwent implantations between December 2001 and December 2002 using this new surgical approach. A Clarion device was used in 11 patients, and a Nucleus in one patient. The minimal invasive approach was accomplished in all patients without any complications. The mean surgical time was 3.2 hours, and the mean time between surgery and the process of programming the external system was 2.7 weeks. The authors concluded that the new surgical approach decreased postoperative edema and allowed programming of the implant in a shorter period of time. 3 figures. 4 references. (AA-M). Subject Category: Hearing. Descriptors: Cochlear Implants. Surgical Techniques. Postoperative Complications.


Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Sensorineural

Hearing Loss After Bacterial Meningitis.

Author(s): Aminpour, S., Tinling, S. P., Brodie, H. A. Source: Otology & Neurotology. 26(4):602-609. July 2005. Availability: Reprints available from Dr. Hilary A. Brodie, Department of Otolaryngology, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 1515 Newton Court, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: habrodie@ucdavis.edu. Language: English. Abstract: This article describes a study that determined whether the blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha with TNF-alpha antibody will reduce the extent of cochlear injury and hearing loss associated with streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Fifty Mongolian gerbils were divided into four groups. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was induced in groups one and two. Group two was given a single intraperitoneal injection of TNF-alpha antibody, whereas group one received phosphate-buffered saline. Uninfected animals in groups three and four were implanted with osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous 8-day intrathecal flow of either TNF-alpha (group four) or phosphate- buffered saline (group three). Group two animals with streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and received TNF-alpha antibody developed significantly less hearing loss than group one animals with meningitis alone. The decrease in the average threshold at 4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz was 31, 30, 25, and 28 decibels of sound pressure level, respectively. Histomorphometric analysis showed significantly less damage to the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion and ligament, and stria vascularis in group two. Conversely, TNF-alpha induced meningitis animals showed increased hearing loss compared with phosphate-buffered saline controls. The article concludes that TNF-alpha plays an important role in cochlear injury after bacterial meningitis. 5 figures. 3 references. (AA-M). Subject Category: Hearing. Descriptors: Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Cochlea. Bacterial Infections. Meningitis. Inflammation. Etiology. Animal Studies.



The Inhibitory Effect of Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion on

Tinnitus After Translabyrinthine Removal of Vestibular

Schwannoma: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

Author(s): Baguley, D. M. Source: Otology & Neurotology. 26(2):169-176, March 2005. Availability: Available from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Customer Service, P.O. 1175, Lowell, MA 01853. (978) 262-9611. Fax: (978) 262- 9617. Language: English. Abstract: As stated in the authors' statement of research objective, intravenous infusion of lidocaine has previously been demonstrated to have a transient inhibitory effect on tinnitus in 60 percent of individuals. They state also that the site of action has variously been proposed as the cochlea, the cochlea nerve, and the central auditory pathways. To determine whether a central site of action exists, this study investigated the effect of intravenous infusion of lidocaine in individuals with tinnitus who had previously undergone translabyrinthine excision of a vestibular schwannoma, which involves division of the cochlear nerve. In their conclusion, the researchers report that intravenous infusion of lidocaine has a statistically significant inhibitory effect on tinnitus in patients who have previously undergone translabyrinthine removal of a vestibular schwannoma. They state also that site of action of lidocaine in this instance must be in the central auditory pathway, as the cochlear and vestibular nerves are sectioned during surgery, and this finding has important implications for the task of identifying other agents that will have a similar tinnitus-inhibiting effect. Subject Category: Hearing. Descriptors: Hearing Research. Post Operative Tinnitus. Vestibular Schwannoma.


Intratympanic Corticosteroids for Sudden Idiopathic

Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Author(s): Banerjee, A., Parnes, L. S. Source: Otology & Neurotology. 26(5):878-881. September 2005. Availability: Reprints available from Dr. Lorne S. Parnes, University of Western Ontario, Department of Otolaryngology, 339 Windermere Road, Room 6OF15, London, Ontario, N6A 5A5 Canada. E-mail: parnes@uwo.ca. Language: English. Abstract: This article describes a study that evaluated the effectiveness of intratympanic steroids in the treatment of sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). Researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent intratympanic steroid treatment between 1996 and 2002 at a university-based tertiary care otology clinic between 1996 and 2002. They compared pretreatment and posttreatment pure tone audiograms and speech discrimination scores for 26 patients. Overall, there was a 27.2 plus or minus 5.7 decibel improvement in the pure tone thresholds, and a 25.4 plus or minus 6.2 percent improvement in speech discrimination scores. Those treated within 10 days of onset had a statistically significant better outcome than those treated after 10 days. No adverse reactions or complications were reported. The authors conclude that instillation of intratympanic steroids represents a safe and potentially effective treatment of SSHL. 4 tables. 18 references. (AA-M). Subject Category: Hearing. Descriptors: Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Tympanic Membrane. Steroids. Drug Therapy. Treatment Efficacy.


Plasticity of the Central Auditory System: Its Role in Auditory


Author(s): Banotai, A. Source: ADVANCE for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists 15(25):6. June 2005. Availability: Available from Merion Publications, Inc. 2900 Horizon Drive, Box 61556, King of Prussia, PA 19406-0956. (610) 278-1400. E-mail: advance@merion.com. Website: www.advanceweb.com. Language: English. Abstract: Information gleaned from a decade of research on the effects of aging on the central auditory system and its plasticity may provide hearing scientists and audiologists with an alternative perspective to the current device-centered approach to auditory rehabilitation. In this article, the author elaborates on how the science can be used to facilitate better rehabilitation approaches for both client and practitioner.

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