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trying to put together data that could be used for future coaching and training. One of

their biggest obstacles for acquiring data for this longitudinal study was the high

attrition rate of the athletes. An interesting observation by the researchers was that the

coaches needed as much or more help with stress and anxiety at the Olympics as did the

athletes. It is likely that the coach’s anxiety and stress was communicated to the


While the utility of sports psychology has been researched and practiced in the

United States, quite a bit has also been done in Eastern Europe. To this end, Roberts

and Kimiecik (1989) interviewed Dr. Gerd Konzag of the former German Democratic

Republic (GDR). Many differences were pointed out between the Eastern European

countries and the West. First of all, the inclusion of sports psychology was much more

important to the Eastern European countries. Secondly, the approach to sports

psychology is different. Sport psychologists in the USA work directly with the athletes,

whereas, the Eastern Europeans believed that the coach should be the sport

psychologist. In other words, the job of the sport psychologist is to help educate the

coach. Furthermore, coaches in the former GDR completed a thorough training

program that included extensive education in Sports Psychology. In western countries,

coaches are seldom required to have formal training or to work closely with sport

science practitioners or researchers. In an interview with Henrietta Onodi, 1992

Olympic gold medalist and world champion from Hungary, it was pointed out that she

and her teammates have completed many psychological assessments throughout their

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