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Reeds (1995) reports a study designed to predict performance from selected

personality traits and state anxiety levels. Twenty-one male and 35 female competitive

gymnasts participated in the study and were included in the data collection. The

purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between selected personality

traits, state (pre-competitive) anxiety and performance in competitive gymnasts. A

second purpose was to develop a personality-anxiety-based model to predict

performance among competitive gymnasts. The study failed to show that pre-

competitive anxiety was a significant predictor of gymnastics performance.

Furthermore, the hypothesis related to the personality-performance relationship was not

supported.

Aronson (1982) utilized Nideffer’s Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style

(TAIS; Nideffer, 1990) to identify attentional and interpersonal factors between elite

and non-elite collegiate gymnasts. The basis for the TAIS is that athletic performance

is closely related to attentional style or focus and, once this is isolated, predicting

athletic performance in a variety of situations becomes possible (LeUnes & Nation,

2002). Results from the study indicated a significant difference between the two

groups. On the other hand, qualitative analysis (interviews) of these same gymnasts,

revealed few differences with respect to the way gymnasts prepare mentally for

competition.

Hayashi (1998) examined anxiety levels and ways of coping in gymnasts in

order to determine why certain gymnasts continue to participate in their sport and others

do not. The results indicated an interaction between several variables and youth sport

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