characteristics. If only one characteristic is being studied, then the best test would be
one specific for that characteristic. However, when trying to predict success in a sport
like gymnastics, or trying to identify one of several psychological constructs to
determine strengths and weaknesses, the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28;
Smith, Schutz, Smoll, & Ptacek (1995) has emerged as one of the best.
The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28
The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28) measures the factors
deemed crucial to success in competitive athletic performance (LeUnes, Bourgeois, &
Guarnieri, 1999). A description of the ACSI-28’s sub-scales are as follows:
Coping with Adversity: Remains positive and enthusiastic even when things are going
badly; remains calm and controlled; can quickly bound back from mistakes and
Peaking under Pressure: challenged rather than threatened by pressure situations and
performs well under pressure; a clutch performer.
Goal Setting and Mental Preparation: Sets and works toward specific performance
goals; plans and mentally prepares herself for competition and clearly has a “game
Concentration: Not easily distracted; able to focus on the task at hand in both practice
and competition situations, even when adverse or unexpected situations occur.
Freedom from Worry: Does not put pressure on herself by worrying about performing
poorly or making mistakes; does not worry about what others will think if she performs