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Confidence and Achievement Motivation: Is confident and positively motivated;

consistently gives 100% during practice and competition and works hard to improve her

skills.

Coachability: Open to and learns from instruction; accepts constructive criticism

without taking it personally and becoming upset.

The ACSI-28 was developed by Smith et al. (1995) of the University of

Washington. Since then the ACSI-28 has been used in the evaluation of minor league

baseball players (Smith & Christiansen, 1995), basketball players (Goudas,

Theodorakis, & Karamousalidis, 1998), elite rowers (Baltzell, 1999), major league

umpires, (LeUnes et al., 1999), nationally ranked soccer players (Junge et al., 2000),

and Pacific 10 Championship golfers (Christiansen, 2000). Research to date, though

sparse, suggests that the ACSI-28 shows promise as a measure of mental skills essential

to success in sports (Bourgeois, Loss, Meyers, & LeUnes, 2003). Whereas results have

been mixed, or even inconclusive for several psychological tests of athletes, the ACSI-

28 has been regarded as a psychometrically sound and useful instrument.

Smith and Christiansen (1995) conducted a study designed to determine the role

of physical and psychological skills as predictors of performance and continued

participation in professional baseball players. Results indicated that psychological and

physical skills were largely independent of one another and thus appear to be measuring

separate and independent skill domains. The researchers found that scores from the

ACSI-28 accounted for as much variance in batting average as did physical skills (about

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