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20%). For pitching, the psychological measures accounted for much more variance in

earned run average than did physical skills.

The ASCI-28 has also been shown to be an important correlate of successful

golf performance in a study by Christiansen (2000) involving golfers participating in

the Pacific-10 Golf Championships. The total Coping Skills score from the ACSI-28

was significantly correlated with overall stroke average for men and women, even after

statistically controlling for ratings of physical talent and social desirability, indicating

that the ACSI-28 had unique predictive ability. Of the seven subscales of the ACSI-28,

Confidence and Achievement Motivation and Peaking under Pressure were significant

predictors in both this and the previous study leading Christiansen to suggest that these

two subscales may be particularly robust correlates of athletic performance.

Baltzell (1999) studied psychological factors related to rower’s ability to cope in

elite competition. Participants included 61 contenders and/or members of the United

States national rowing team. The ACSI-28 and the Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) were

tests administered in this study. The Brief COPE measure employed was developed to

assess a broad range of coping responses whereas the ACSI-28 was specifically

designed to assess the psychological skills implemented by athletes in order to better

cope successfully within a sport context. Results indicated that coping was positively

and significantly related to athletic coping skills. Coping correlated well with three of

the ACSI-28 subscales: Confidence, Goal setting, and Mental preparation. Baltzell

endorsed the ACSI-28 explaining that it may serve as a useful guide for future research

since it appears to indicate which of the mental skills are most important for the athlete

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