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to develop in order to enhance and optimize their coping skills. One concern that

Baltzell had, however, was the lack of correlation between Coping and the Coping with

Adversity subscale in the ACSI-28. Baltzell asserts that these two scales should be

more closely related since theoretically, those athletes who cope effectively would also

cope with adversity. More research needs to be done with both of these inventories to

see if, indeed, they are measuring the same thing and, if future testing might show a

closer relationship. Certainly, more thorough documentation of the psychometric

characteristics of the Brief COPE scale is in order.

Psychological characteristics of soccer players were analyzed by Junge et al.,

(2000). As in other sports, soccer requires not only a high level of physical

performance, but mental preparation and psychological skills. Junge and his associates

hypothesized that players of different levels of play might display differences among

the various psychological factors. Also, it was believed that identifying the

psychological factors that influence soccer performance could provide important

information to improve the athlete’s preparation for the game, influence the occurrence

of injuries and lead to intervention methods to improve fair play.

The ACSI-28 was used in part of Junge’s study to assist with the analysis of

soccer players and fair play. Results from the study indicated that the psychological

characteristics of players who did not talk or listen to an opponent during a game were

almost the opposite of those who did. Players, who refrained from verbal interaction

with the opponent more often prepared mentally for the game, had better concentration,

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