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were easier to coach, and coped better with adversity then the players who talked or

listened to an opponent during the game.

A common problem encountered with self-report measures in all psychological

assessment domains is the presence of socially desirable responding (Bourgeois et al.,

2003). The ACSI-28 seems relatively immune to the effects of socially desirable

responding. Bourgeois and his colleagues studied the relationship between the ACSI-

28 and impression management and self-deception aspects of socially desirable

responding. Results from this study found the ACSI-28 to be relatively free from

impression management response bias. Interestingly, all the ACSI-28 subscales were

strongly affected by self-deception response bias. The researchers suggest that further

study is needed concerning the effects of self-deception response bias. Interestingly,

they point out that self-deceptiveness may prove to be essential to the development of

optimal psychological skills and therefore emerge as an important athletic coping skill.

The ACSI-28 was employed in this study as an index of psychological factors

that might be related to performance. It seems that the ACSI-28 has proven to be

psychometrically sound. Validation of the ACSI-28 instrument was done using

confirmatory factor analysis (Smith, Schultz, Smoll, & Ptacek, 1995). The

confirmatory validity of the instrument was evaluated with the traditional goodness of

fit indices. The ACSI-28 exceeded the goodness of fit criteria, and, all factor loadings

were significant at p<.001. It is clear that the ACSI-28 possesses factorial validity.

As has been shown in the very thorough documentation of the psychometric

soundness of the ACSI-28, and, in view of its brevity (28 items), it is the instrument of

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