were easier to coach, and coped better with adversity then the players who talked or
listened to an opponent during the game.
A common problem encountered with self-report measures in all psychological
assessment domains is the presence of socially desirable responding (Bourgeois et al.,
2003). The ACSI-28 seems relatively immune to the effects of socially desirable
responding. Bourgeois and his colleagues studied the relationship between the ACSI-
28 and impression management and self-deception aspects of socially desirable
responding. Results from this study found the ACSI-28 to be relatively free from
impression management response bias. Interestingly, all the ACSI-28 subscales were
strongly affected by self-deception response bias. The researchers suggest that further
study is needed concerning the effects of self-deception response bias. Interestingly,
they point out that self-deceptiveness may prove to be essential to the development of
optimal psychological skills and therefore emerge as an important athletic coping skill.
The ACSI-28 was employed in this study as an index of psychological factors
that might be related to performance. It seems that the ACSI-28 has proven to be
psychometrically sound. Validation of the ACSI-28 instrument was done using
confirmatory factor analysis (Smith, Schultz, Smoll, & Ptacek, 1995). The
confirmatory validity of the instrument was evaluated with the traditional goodness of
fit indices. The ACSI-28 exceeded the goodness of fit criteria, and, all factor loadings
were significant at p<.001. It is clear that the ACSI-28 possesses factorial validity.
As has been shown in the very thorough documentation of the psychometric
soundness of the ACSI-28, and, in view of its brevity (28 items), it is the instrument of