survey. A cover letter, which explained the nature and purpose of the study, along with
instructions as to how to complete and return the questionnaire and consent forms, was
included in the packet.
The use of a questionnaire has obvious limitations. One such limitation is
basing our conclusions on self-reports rather than observations (Thomas & Nelson,
1990). However, for the purpose of this study it was the most effective way of
obtaining the information needed. Furthermore, the questionnaire is psychometrically
sound and has substantial support in the literature as a valid assessment tool, which will
ensure the most valid results. Another limitation when using a questionnaire is the
number of responses returned to the researcher relative to the number sent out. The
design and appearance of the cover letter, and the questionnaire, encouraged the
thoughtful participation of the subjects, and, providing stamped return envelopes
ensured a high percentage of successfully returned questionnaires. The fact that 17 out
of 18 gymnastics clubs (94.44%) surveyed successfully returned the completed
materials was gratifying.
SAS statistical analysis procedures were employed to conduct multiple analyses
of variance (MANOVA) comparing ACSI-28 data by various performance levels.
Subsequent to significant MANOVA and ANOVA results, Tukey’s HSD was used for
the multiple comparisons of the various performance levels.