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survey. A cover letter, which explained the nature and purpose of the study, along with

instructions as to how to complete and return the questionnaire and consent forms, was

included in the packet.

The use of a questionnaire has obvious limitations. One such limitation is

basing our conclusions on self-reports rather than observations (Thomas & Nelson,

1990). However, for the purpose of this study it was the most effective way of

obtaining the information needed. Furthermore, the questionnaire is psychometrically

sound and has substantial support in the literature as a valid assessment tool, which will

ensure the most valid results. Another limitation when using a questionnaire is the

number of responses returned to the researcher relative to the number sent out. The

design and appearance of the cover letter, and the questionnaire, encouraged the

thoughtful participation of the subjects, and, providing stamped return envelopes

ensured a high percentage of successfully returned questionnaires. The fact that 17 out

of 18 gymnastics clubs (94.44%) surveyed successfully returned the completed

materials was gratifying.

Data Analysis

SAS statistical analysis procedures were employed to conduct multiple analyses

of variance (MANOVA) comparing ACSI-28 data by various performance levels.

Subsequent to significant MANOVA and ANOVA results, Tukey’s HSD was used for

the multiple comparisons of the various performance levels.

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