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Level 11 (M = 9.03, SE = .33), which was higher than were Level 8 (M = 7.56, SE =

.34) and Level 9 (M = 7.47, SE = .29). Finally, a significant effect {F(4,190) = 2.76,

p<.03} was observed for the Personal Coping Resources composite score with Tukey’s

analyses revealing that Level 11 (M = 51.03, SD = 1.90) scored higher than Level 9 (M

= 43.75, SE = 1.65).

Discussion This investigation examined the psychological characteristics of competitive

female gymnasts. The following discussion focuses on the research question addressed.

Research Question

Are there psychological differences between elite and non-elite level gymnasts?

The study demonstrated that there are psychological differences between elite

and non-elite level gymnasts.

The results of the MANOVA and subsequent ANOVAs comparing levels of

competitive gymnasts resulted in a significant difference between Level 11 (“elites”)

and the other groups on the ACSI-28 subscales. Table IV displays the means and

standard deviations for each level. Interestingly, the Level 11 (“elite”) gymnasts

consistently scored higher on the ACSI-28 subscales than did the other levels. It is

noted that the scores for Level 11 gymnasts (“elites”) are very similar to the scores for

top players in the other sports indicating that the ACSI-28 is as valid for young “elite”

level gymnasts as it is for older elite athletes in other sports. Table IV also shows the

ACSI-28 scores for reviewed studies from other sports.

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