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higher than did much better than did Level 9 and 8 gymnasts. Examples of adverse

conditions inherent in competitive gymnastics are as follows: continuing to perform

after a mistake or fall, persistence in competing while ill or injured (a frequent

occurrence in the sport of gymnastics), problems with family or friends to which most

teenage girls seem to be especially susceptible to, adjusting to changes in routine

environmental conditions on the floor or equipment (for example, lighting conditions at

variance with the familiar or expected), problems or difficulty with a particular skill just

before competition, inadequate amount or too much chalk on the bars, or different types

of equipment at the competition then they are used to in practice. Other adverse

conditions include such factors as the tumbling floor being stiffer then what the

gymnasts are used to. Also, the inability to get their steps correct on the vaulting

runway, the pressure of higher levels of competition, dealing with media and publicity,

and the stress of adjusting to jet-lag when traveling from one time zone to another.

Every athlete encounters adversity and those who handle it better, will more than likely

be more successful.

A significant difference was not noted between Levels 10 and 11 (“elite”) on

Coping with Adversity. It may well be that differences between these groups are due to

differences on other subscales or on physical or experiential factors.

It is interesting to note that the Level 7 gymnasts did not always follow the trend

exhibited by the other levels in that they did not differ significantly from the “elites”.

Earlier, when describing the Level 7 gymnast, it was mentioned that these gymnasts are

beginner-intermediate in skill level and experience, and typically younger. This is the

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