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level when they receive their first personalized routines (non-compulsory). They

generally spend a lot less time training in the gym, travel much less, and do not have the

same pressures to qualify to future competitions. In fact, they have very little pressure

at all compared to the other levels. The simpler skills of which gymnasts in Level 7

compete make adversities such as differences in equipment almost a non-factor. If they

become sick or injured, more than likely they will stay home from the gym or from

competition. The higher level gymnasts are much more likely to train and compete

while sick or injured.

Goal Preparation

A significant difference between Levels was shown for the Goal Preparation

subscale. The goal setting variable indicates the extent to which athletes establish a

firm set of goals and, through the use of strategies designed to attain a series of

intermediate goals, are able to achieve the more long range goal of “Elite” status.

Again, Tukey’s analyses indicated that Level 11 (“elite”) gymnasts scored significantly

higher then Level 8 and Level 9. One reason for this might be that by the time

gymnasts get to Level 10 and Level 11 (“elite”), these gymnasts have become used to

setting goals for the year and for years to come. Many set goals of qualifying for state,

regional, and national competitions, qualifying to the next level, and to master the skills

needed to successfully compete during the next competitive season. The elite gymnasts

seem to set short-term goals in preparation for the next competition and long term goals

for possible college scholarships and qualifying for and competing in international

events. The similarity in goal setting scores between Level 11 (“elite”) and Level 10

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