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may be explained by the following: (a) Level 10 gymnasts are very advanced; some

are every bit as good as elite gymnasts. (b) Many level 10 gymnasts will plan to

continue competitive gymnastics at the collegiate level. It can therefore be assumed

that Level 10 and Level 11 (“elite”) gymnasts habitually set and attain goals.


Significant differences were noted for the Concentration subscale with Level 11

(“elite”) scoring higher than Level 8. The way gymnastics is (should be) taught utilizes

a system referred to as progression. Basic skills are taught first until they are mastered.

These basic skills lead to more advanced skills and combinations of skills. As the level

of difficulty increases for skills and combinations of skills, more concentration is

required. Gymnasts that go through the proper progressions should be able to

demonstrate the highest levels of concentration by the time they reach Level 10 and 11.

There are several important things to concentrate on for competitive gymnastics:

difficult skills, routines, presentation of the routine, etc. In fact, gymnasts may possess

higher levels of concentration than do athletes in other sports. Certainly, the data

shown in Table IV would support this contention. One important aspect of

concentration is the need to focus totally on the task at hand and to be able to rule out

distractions. This ability to maintain a high degree of concentration comes from

competitive experience. Although Level 10 and Level 11 gymnasts generally have

more competitive experience, often other gymnasts spend many years at levels below

the elite level and thus acquire lots of competitive experience. Nonetheless, as can be

seen in Table IV, there is a trend showing a linear relationship between Level and

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