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Concentration scores. Specifically, with the possible exception of Level 7, it seems that

higher level gymnasts report higher degrees of concentration.

Confidence and Achievement Motivation

A significant difference was also shown between Level 11 (“elite”) and the

other gymnasts for Confidence and Achievement Motivation ACSI-28 subscale. Again,

Tukey’s analyses demonstrated the elite level scoring higher than both Level 9 and

Level 8. Clearly, elite gymnasts should display higher levels of confidence, and,

perhaps the attainment of elite status was impelled by a high need for achievement or

success, as opposed to the more paralyzing fear of failure. Certainly achievement at

highly competitive levels in gymnastics would lead to enhanced confidence.

There are different ways to achieve in gymnastics: achieving the mastery of a

new skill in training, overcoming a fear of a difficult skill, achieving a qualifying score

to move up to a higher level, qualifying to state, regional, and national championship

competitions, receiving a college scholarship, qualifying to the national team, or

winning the gold medal at an international competition. It is intuitively obvious that

those gymnasts who perform at higher levels are more achievement oriented than are

the gymnasts who perform at lower levels.

Confidence, on the other hand, may not be as distinct a category. A lower level

gymnast can be extremely confident of competing their routines successfully. The

routines are much easier and the athlete can train more routines then the higher levels.

During a practice session performing 10-20 routines for lower level gymnasts is not

nearly as difficult as a Level 10 or elite gymnast doing the same thing. A lower level

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