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gymnast can score 9.5-9.8 giving her a feeling of extreme confidence entering

subsequent competitions. That same lower level gymnast, however, if thrust into high

levels of competition, would not display a high degree of confidence in their chances.

However, since the ACSI-28 assesses current status of a gymnast on psychological

skills, the difference between confidence that an elite acquires when scoring well and a

lower level gymnast acquires when scoring well may be minimal. What is important is

that as a gymnast advances in skill and competitive level, confidence be maintained, or

even enhanced. It may well be that achievement motivation may be more of a

determining factor than confidence when calculating scores for the Confidence and

Achievement Motivation subscale.

One factor that may differentiate gymnasts no matter what level they are is their

approach to performing new skills, routines, and especially competition. Is the athlete’s

approach one of confidence that they will be successful, or, is their approach more of

trying to avoid failure? The more successful athletes approach competition with a

feeling of confidence that they will be successful (Gordin & Henschen, 1989).

Personal Coping Resources

The personal coping resources score, a composite score of all seven subscales,

showed a significant LEVEL effect. Tukey’s analysis revealed that the Level 11

(“elite”) scored higher than Level 9. Once again, when viewing Table IV, a trend can

be seen among the different PCR scores with the Level 11 (“elite”) being highest and

comparable to PCR scores of the highest level athletes in other sports.

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