Prudential Financial, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Derivative Instruments (continued)
When a derivative is designated as a foreign currency hedge and is determined to be effective, changes in its fair value are recorded in either current period earnings or “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss),” depending on whether the hedge transaction is a fair value hedge (e.g., a hedge of a firm commitment that is to be settled in a foreign currency) or a cash flow hedge (e.g., a foreign currency denominated forecasted transaction). If, however, a derivative is used as a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation, its changes in fair value, to the extent effective as a hedge, are recorded in the cumulative translation adjustments account within “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).” Those amounts, before applicable taxes, were gains of $77 million in 2001, $88 million in 2000 and a loss of $47 million in 1999.
If a derivative does not qualify for hedge accounting as described above, it is recorded at fair value in “Other long- term investments” or “Other liabilities” in the Consolidated Statements of Financial Position, and changes in its fair value are included in current earnings without considering changes in fair value of the hedged assets or liabilities. See “Types of Derivative Instruments” for further discussion of the classification of derivative activity in current earnings. Cash flows from other than trading derivatives are reported in the investing activities section in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
The Company occasionally purchases a financial instrument that contains a derivative instrument that is “embedded” in the financial instrument. Upon purchasing the instrument, the Company assesses whether the economic characteristics of the embedded derivative are clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the remaining component of the financial instrument (i.e., the host contract) and whether a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded instrument would meet the definition of a derivative instrument. When it is determined that (1) the embedded derivative possesses economic characteristics that are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract, and (2) a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the embedded derivative is separated from the host contract, carried at fair value, and changes in its fair value are included in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.”
Types of Derivative Instruments Interest rate swaps are used by the Company to manage interest rate exposures arising from mismatches between assets and liabilities (including duration mismatches) and to hedge against changes in the value of assets it anticipates acquiring and other anticipated transactions and commitments. Under interest rate swaps, the Company agrees with other parties to exchange, at specified intervals, the difference between fixed-rate and floating-rate interest amounts calculated by reference to an agreed notional principal amount. Generally, no cash is exchanged at the outset of the contract and no principal payments are made by either party. Cash is paid or received based on the terms of the swap. These transactions are entered into pursuant to master agreements that provide for a single net payment to be made by one counterparty at each due date. The fair value of swap agreements is estimated based on proprietary pricing models or market quotes.
As discussed above, if an interest rate swap does not qualify for hedge accounting, changes in its fair value are included in “Realized investment gains (losses), net” without considering changes in fair value of the hedged assets or liabilities. During the period that interest rate swaps are outstanding, net receipts or payments are included in “Net investment income.” Net interest receipts (payments) were $(29) million in 2001, $11 million in 2000 and $(4) million in 1999.
Exchange-traded futures and options are used by the Company to reduce market risks from changes in interest rates, to alter mismatches between the duration of assets in a portfolio and the duration of liabilities supported by those assets, and to hedge against changes in the value of securities it owns or anticipates acquiring or selling. In exchange-traded futures transactions, the Company agrees to purchase or sell a specified number of contracts, the value of which are determined by the value of designated classes of Treasury securities, and to post variation margin on a daily basis in an amount equal to the difference in the daily market values of those contracts. The Company enters into exchange-traded futures and options with regulated futures commissions merchants who are members of a trading exchange. The fair value of those futures and options is based on market quotes.
Treasury futures typically are used to hedge duration mismatches between assets and liabilities by replicating Treasury performance. Treasury futures move substantially in value as interest rates change and can be used to
Prudential Financial 2001 Annual Report