Prudential Financial, Inc.
equity underwriting for corporate issuers and institutional fixed income businesses of Prudential Securities recorded pre-tax losses of $159 million in the year ended December 31, 2001, and $620 million in 2000, and pre-tax income of $23 million in 1999. The losses in 2001 came primarily from deterioration in the value of collateralized receivables that we are in the process of liquidating, which are related to these businesses, and wind-down costs. The losses from these operations in 2000 came primarily from charges of $476 million associated with our termination and wind-down of these activities. Gibraltar Casualty recorded pre-tax losses of $7 million in 2000 and $72 million in 1999. The 1999 losses are attributable to increased reserves for environmental and asbestos-related claims resulting primarily from an increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against manufacturers of asbestos- related products. The remainder of our results from divested businesses are attributable to our remaining obligations with respect to our divested residential mortgage banking business, a benefits plan administration business we sold in 1998, and a Canadian life insurance subsidiary that we sold in May 2000.
Demutualization Costs and Expenses We incurred costs and expenses related to demutualization totaling $588 million in the year ended December 31, 2001, including $340 million of demutualization consideration paid to our former Canadian branch policyholders, $143 million in 2000, and $75 million in 1999. These costs and expenses are reported separately in our consolidated income statements within income from continuing operations before income taxes. Demutualization expenses consist primarily of the costs of engaging independent accounting, actuarial, investment banking, legal and other consultants to advise us and insurance regulators in the demutualization process and related matters as well as printing and postage for communication with policyholders.
Taxes A provision of federal tax law applicable to mutual life insurance companies has resulted in significant fluctuations in our effective tax rate. This tax law requires adjustment to the deductible portion of policyholder dividends based on a complex multi-year formula that compares the financial accounting earnings rates of mutual life insurance companies with those of stock life insurers. The actual rate to be applied to a particular tax year is determined by the IRS up to two years after the end of the tax year. Accordingly, for periods prior to our demutualization, we were required to estimate the current year’s rate in determining our tax provision for the current year for accounting purposes. When the actual rate was announced by the IRS, we recognized any difference between our estimated rate and the IRS’s actual rate in that year. We are no longer subject to this tax after the demutualization. The impact of this tax law as reflected in reported results, including the current year estimate and adjustment of prior year estimates, constitutes the primary reason for the difference between our reported effective tax rates and the statutory rate of 35%. See Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
We recorded a net income tax benefit of $57 million in 2001 and an income tax provision of $406 million in 2000. The income tax benefit in 2001 represented 25% of our loss from continuing operations before income taxes, while the income tax provision in 2000 represented 56% of that year’s income from continuing operations before income taxes. The net income tax benefit in 2001 was primarily due to a $200 million reduction of the estimated liability for the mutual life insurance company tax, while the income tax provision in 2000 reflected a $100 million provision for this tax. The disparity between our effective tax rates in 2001 and 2000 and the application of the corporate income tax rate of 35% to our income or loss from continuing operations before income taxes is primarily a result of the mutual life insurance company tax and the inclusion of demutualization costs and expenses within income or loss from continuing operations before income taxes.
Our income tax provisions amounted to $406 million for 2000 and $1.042 billion for 1999. The income tax provisions represented 56% of income from continuing operations before income taxes in 2000 and 46% of income from continuing operations before income taxes in 1999. This increase in the effective rate was due primarily to the mutual life insurance company tax discussed above and an increase in demutualization expenses.
Discontinued Operations In December 1998, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell our healthcare operations as described in Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The sale was completed in August 1999. Net losses from these operations, after related income tax benefits, were $521 million in 1998, including a $223 million loss on disposal. We recognized an additional loss on disposal of these operations during 1999 amounting to $400 million after related tax benefits. Higher than anticipated operating losses prior to the closing date, resulting principally from adverse claims experience, and the impact of this experience on our evaluation of our obligations under our agreement to make payments to the purchaser of our healthcare operations if the medical loss ratio exceeds specified levels, caused the additional loss. In 2000, upon completion of the period covered by that agreement and comparing other costs we incurred related to the healthcare disposal to those estimated in 1998 and 1999, we reduced the loss on
Prudential Financial 2001 Annual Report