Prudential Financial, Inc.
operations and hedge portfolios were essentially unchanged in 2000 from 1999. As of December 31, 2000, the hedge portfolios held assets, including both principal positions and securities financing positions, of approximately $7.9 billion, compared to $5.9 billion a year earlier.
Revenues 2001 to 2000 Annual Comparison. Revenues, as shown in the table above under “—Operating Results,” decreased $33 million, or 7%, from 2000 to 2001. The decrease came from a decline in revenues from our equity sales and trading operations, from $404 million in 2000 to $347 million in 2001, which included revenues of $22 million that Prudential Securities received as co-manager in the initial public offering of our Common Stock. Excluding this item, revenues from our equity sales and trading operations declined $79 million, or 20%, in 2001 from 2000. Revenues in 2001 were negatively affected by reduced revenues from principal trading supporting retail and institutional customers, while 2000 revenues benefited from exceptionally active equity securities markets during the first four months of the year. The reduced principal trading revenues we experienced in 2001 reflected lower transaction volume in the equity securities markets resulting from decreased individual investor trading activity, as well as reduced securities trading spreads.
2000 to 1999 Annual Comparison. Revenues increased $97 million, or 26%, from 1999 to 2000. The increase came from a $102 million increase in revenues from our equity sales and trading operations, from $302 million in 1999 to $404 million in 2000. The equity sales and trading operations benefited from increased volume from retail activity associated with the strength of the technology sector early in 2000, as well as increased transaction volume
from institutional clients.
Expenses 2001 to 2000 Annual Comparison.
Expenses, as shown in the table above under “—Operating Results,” decreased
$25 million, or 7%, from 2000 to 2001. The decline came from a decrease of $32 million in our equity sales and trading operations, from $324 million in 2000 to $292 million in 2001, reflecting decreased compensation expenses driven by the declines in revenue and earnings.
2000 to 1999 Annual Comparison. Expenses increased $72 million, or 26%, from 1999 to 2000. The increase came from an increase of $76 million in our equity sales and trading operations, from $248 million in 1999 to $324 million in 2000, reflecting increased employee compensation expenses driven by increased revenue and earnings as well as increased expenses to expand our equity research capabilities.
Corporate and Other Operations Corporate and Other operations includes corporate-level activities that we do not allocate to our business segments. It also consists of international ventures, divested businesses and businesses that we have placed in wind-down status, but that we have not divested. The latter businesses include individual health insurance, group credit insurance and Canadian life insurance. The divested businesses include the lead-managed equity underwriting for corporate issuers and institutional fixed income businesses of Prudential Securities, Gibraltar Casualty Company, a Canadian life insurance subsidiary, and our divested residential first mortgage banking business. As previously discussed, we exclude the gains, losses and contributions to income/loss of the divested businesses from adjusted operating income.
The following table and discussion present results of these activities based on our definition of adjusted operating income, which is a non-GAAP measure, as well as income from continuing operations before income taxes, which is prepared in accordance with GAAP. As shown below, in addition to the gains, losses and contributions to income/ loss of divested businesses, adjusted operating income excludes realized investment gains, net of losses, sales practices remedies and costs and demutualization costs and expenses.
The excluded items are important to an understanding of our overall results of operations. You should not view adjusted operating income as a substitute for income from continuing operations determined in accordance with GAAP, and you should note that our definition of adjusted operating income may differ from that used by other companies. However, we believe that the presentation of adjusted operating income as we measure it for management purposes enhances the understanding of our results of operations by highlighting the results from ongoing operations and the underlying profitability factors of our businesses. We exclude realized investment gains, net of losses because the timing of transactions resulting in recognition of gains or losses is largely at our discretion and the amount of these gains or losses is heavily influenced by and fluctuates in part according to the availability of market opportunities. Including the fluctuating effects of these transactions could distort trends in the underlying profitability of our businesses. We exclude sales practices remedies and costs because they relate to a substantial