Prudential Financial, Inc.
in the portfolio to approximately $223 million at December 31, 2001 from $3.7 billion a year earlier. We have taken actions to reduce this portfolio and repay the related borrowings, and expect that we will continue to do so. Accordingly, we expect that the contribution to adjusted operating income from this debt-financed portfolio will decline in future periods. Income from invested assets related to sales practices remedies and costs declined $25 million as disbursements were made to satisfy these liabilities. Investment income for 2001 included about $15 million relating to assets initially invested within our Corporate and Other operations as a result of transactions relating to our demutualization, effective as of December 18, 2001. About half of this investment income represents earnings on assets corresponding to cash payments in January 2002 for demutualization consideration in lieu of Common Stock.
General and administrative expenses at the corporate level, on a gross basis before qualified pension income, amounted to $682 million in 2001 compared to $687 million in 2000. Commencing in 2002, we expect to incur additional expenses associated with servicing our stockholder base, including mailing and printing fees, of up to $60 million annually. However, we have taken actions to reduce expenses at the corporate level and, while there can be no assurance, we expect that these actions will result in expense reductions commencing in 2002 that will more than offset the impact of these shareholder servicing costs.
Other businesses included in Corporate and Other operations resulted in a loss, on an adjusted operating income basis, of $42 million in 2001 compared to adjusted operating income of $18 million in 2000. The $60 million decline came primarily from the benefit to 2000 results from reductions of reserves for future claims in our remaining Canadian insurance operations and our wind-down group credit insurance operations, and from an $18 million increase in losses from start-up international ventures.
Income from continuing operations before income taxes amounted to a loss of $520 million in 2001, compared to a loss of $1.063 billion in 2000. The $543 million decrease in the loss came primarily from a $489 million decrease in losses from divested businesses which included, in 2000, charges of $476 million associated with the termination and wind-down of Prudential Securities’ former lead-managed equity underwriting for corporate issuers and institutional fixed income businesses, and from $187 million of realized investment gains in 2001 compared to $280 million of realized investment losses in 2000. However, we incurred demutualization costs and expenses of $588 million in 2001, including a charge of $340 million for demutualization consideration to former Canadian branch policyholders, compared to $143 million of demutualization expenses in 2000.
For a discussion of sales practices remedies and costs, realized investment gains, net of losses, divested businesses and demutualization costs and expenses, see “—Consolidated Results of Operations—Sales Practices Remedies and Costs,” “—Realized Investment Gains,” “—Divested Businesses” and “—Demutualization Costs and Expenses.”
2000 to 1999 Annual Comparison. Corporate and Other operations resulted in a pre-tax loss of $4 million in 2000, compared to pre-tax income of $137 million in 1999, on an adjusted operating income basis. The $141 million decline came primarily from corporate-level activities.
Corporate-level activities resulted in a pre-tax loss of $22 million in 2000, compared to pre-tax income of $126 million in 1999. The $148 million decline resulted primarily from a one-time $114 million reduction of liabilities for our own employee benefits that we recorded in 1999 due to a clarification of law that led us to take into account previously unrecognized assets in that amount. Corporate-level activities benefited from income related to our own qualified pension plan amounting to $415 million in 2000 compared to $197 million in 1999, an increase of $218 million. This income is partially offset in our consolidated results by charges for our other retirement plans allocated both to Corporate and Other operations and our business segments. On a consolidated basis, our net pension credit related to continuing operations amounted to $362 million in 2000 and $201 million in 1999. The increase in pension plan income came primarily from a reduction in the number of plan participants due to the sale of our healthcare operations in 1999, increased income on pension assets and amortization of deferred gains. Amendments to our pension and postretirement plans in 2000 did not have a material effect on our results of operations. The $218 million increase in qualified pension plan income was offset by an increase in general and administrative expenses, and a reduction of investment income net of interest expense at the corporate level. General and administrative expenses at the corporate level, on a gross basis before qualified pension income, were $687 million in 2000 compared to $576 million in 1999. The $111 million increase came primarily from costs incurred during 2000 for company-wide technology development including enhancement of our Internet capabilities. The decrease in investment income net of interest expense, from $386 million in 1999 to $303 million in 2000, resulted primarily from a reduction in invested assets related to sales practices remedies and costs as disbursements were made to satisfy these liabilities.