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PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HEART FAILURE (HF) - page 2 / 48

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According to the joined AHA/ACC committee, the progressive nature of left ventricular dysfunction and HF can be appropriately accounted for by considering 4 stages in the evolution of the disease.

Stage A This stage identifies patients who are at high risk for developing HF, since they have one or more risk factors, but they have no structural disorder of the heart;

Stage B This stage refers to patients who, despite a structural disorder of the heart, have never developed symptoms of HF;

Stage C This stage denotes patients with past or current symptoms of HF associated with underlying structural heart disease;

Stage D This stage designates patients with end-stage disease who require specialized treatment strategies such as mechanical circulatory support, continuous inotropic infusions, cardiac transplantation, or hospice care (see Table 1).

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