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C# LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION

entry point regardless of its declared accessibility and regardless of the declared accessibility of its enclosing type declarations.

In all other respects, entry point methods behave like those that are not entry points.

3.2 Application termination

Application termination returns control to the execution environment.

If the return type of the application’s entry point method is int, the value returned serves as the application's termination status code. The purpose of this code is to allow communication of success or failure to the execution environment.

If the return type of the entry point method is void, reaching the right brace (}) which terminates that method, or executing a return statement that has no expression, results in a termination status code of 0.

Prior to an application’s termination, destructors for all of its objects that have not yet been garbage collected are called, unless such cleanup has been suppressed (by a call to the library method GC.SuppressFinalize, for example).

3.3 Declarations

Declarations in a C# program define the constituent elements of the program. C# programs are organized using namespaces (§‎9), which can contain type declarations and nested namespace declarations. Type declarations (§‎9.5) are used to define classes (§‎10), structs (§‎11), interfaces (§‎13), enums (§‎14), and delegates (§‎15). The kinds of members permitted in a type declaration depend on the form of the type declaration. For instance, class declarations can contain declarations for constants (§‎10.3), fields (§‎10.4), methods (§‎10.5), properties (§‎10.6), events (§‎10.7), indexers (§‎10.8), operators (§‎10.9), instance constructors (§‎10.10), static constructors (§‎10.11), destructors (§‎10.12), and nested types.

A declaration defines a name in the declaration space to which the declaration belongs. Except for overloaded members (§‎3.6), it is a compile-time error to have two or more declarations that introduce members with the same name in a declaration space. It is never possible for a declaration space to contain different kinds of members with the same name. For example, a declaration space can never contain a field and a method by the same name.

There are several different types of declaration spaces, as described in the following.

Within all source files of a program, namespace-member-declarations with no enclosing namespace-declaration are members of a single combined declaration space called the global declaration space.

Within all source files of a program, namespace-member-declarations within namespace-declarations that have the same fully qualified namespace name are members of a single combined declaration space.

Each class, struct, or interface declaration creates a new declaration space. Names are introduced into this declaration space through class-member-declarations, struct-member-declarations, or interface-member-declarations. Except for overloaded instance constructor declarations and static constructor declarations, a class or struct member declaration cannot introduce a member by the same name as the class or struct. A class, struct, or interface permits the declaration of overloaded methods and indexers. Furthermore, a class or struct permits the declaration of overloaded instance constructors and operators. For example, a class, struct, or interface may contain multiple method declarations with the same name, provided these method declarations differ in their signature (§‎3.6). Note that base classes do not contribute to the declaration space of a class, and base interfaces do not contribute to the declaration space of an interface. Thus, a derived class or interface is allowed to declare a member with the same name as an inherited member. Such a member is said to hide the inherited member.

Each enumeration declaration creates a new declaration space. Names are introduced into this declaration space through enum-member-declarations.

54Copyright Microsoft Corporation 1999-2003. All Rights Reserved.

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