advantage of other people’s property to commit crimes. They will use abandoned property as a “crash pad” where they can drink and do drugs. Gang members will also take over parking lots as well as apartment building courtyards, basements, and rooftops. According to Villanueva, gang members will also use private residences to escape police pursuit.
The only burden placed upon associational rights by paragraph (1)(h) is a requirement that gang members obtain advance written permission to be in the homes of others living in the Safety Zone. Once such permission is obtained, the gang member may be present in the home at times when the owner is absent or is unable to give consent due to health reasons. In our view, paragraph (1)(h) does not impose a greater burden on association rights than is necessary to serve the public interest involved.
Paragraph (1)(g) of the preliminary injunction contains the following curfew restriction: “Remaining upon public property, a public place, on the premises of any establishment, or on a vacant lot, between the hours of 10:00 p.m. on any day and 6:00 a.m. the following day. . . .” This provision defines “public place” as “any place to which the public has access, including but not limited to sidewalks, alleys, streets, highways, parks, the common areas of schools, hospitals, office buildings, and transport facilities.” It further defines “establishment” as “a