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THE LABOR SUPPLY OF SINGLE MOTHERS

1083

TABLE II EMPLOYMENT RATES FOR SINGLE MOTHERS, SINGLE MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER SIX, AND SINGLE WOMEN WITHOUT CHILDREN, 1984–1996

1984

0.5854

0.8014

0.2160

0.0059

0.7322

0.9399

0.2077

0.0083

1985

0.5861

0.8048

0.2187

0.0058

0.7302

0.9439

0.2137

0.0083

1986

0.5891

0.8131

0.2240

0.0057

0.7310

0.9450

0.2141

0.0082

1987

0.5941

0.8179

0.2238

0.0056

0.7382

0.9473

0.2091

0.0081

1988

0.6027

0.8215

0.2188

0.0058

0.7482

0.9485

0.2003

0.0084

1989

0.6136

0.8150

0.2015

0.0058

0.7577

0.9409

0.1831

0.0080

1990

0.6007

0.8155

0.2148

0.0056

0.7591

0.9424

0.1832

0.0079

1991

0.5790

0.8031

0.2242

0.0056

0.7428

0.9418

0.1990

0.0079

1992

0.5790

0.7957

0.2167

0.0057

0.7387

0.9299

0.1913

0.0081

1993

0.5875

0.7918

0.2044

0.0057

0.7511

0.9356

0.1845

0.0080

1994

0.6053

0.7921

0.1868

0.0057

0.7907

0.9312

0.1405

0.0078

1995

0.6265

0.7971

0.1707

0.0058

0.8072

0.9340

0.1268

0.0080

1996

0.6450

0.7938

0.1488

0.0060

0.8191

0.9290

0.1098

0.0079

Standard

No

Standard

error

Children children Difference

error

1984

0.4382

0.8014

0.3632

0.0083

0.6122

0.9399

0.3277

0.0131

1985

0.4328

0.8048

0.3720

0.0082

0.5966

0.9439

0.3474

0.0133

1986

0.4362

0.8131

0.3770

0.0081

0.6227

0.9450

0.3223

0.0128

1987

0.4437

0.8179

0.3742

0.0082

0.6096

0.9473

0.3377

0.0129

1988

0.4634

0.8215

0.3581

0.0084

0.6277

0.9485

0.3207

0.0132

1989

0.4790

0.8150

0.3360

0.0083

0.6282

0.9409

0.3127

0.0127

1990

0.4569

0.8155

0.3586

0.0079

0.6369

0.9424

0.3055

0.0124

1991

0.4289

0.8031

0.3743

0.0078

0.6092

0.9418

0.3326

0.0124

1992

0.4330

0.7957

0.3627

0.0078

0.6273

0.9299

0.3027

0.0124

1993

0.4557

0.7918

0.3362

0.0078

0.6428

0.9356

0.2929

0.0122

1994

0.4796

0.7921

0.3125

0.0079

0.6934

0.9312

0.2378

0.0121

1995

0.5147

0.7971

0.2825

0.0081

0.7221

0.9340

0.2119

0.0123

1996

0.5396

0.7938

0.2543

0.0085

0.7476

0.9290

0.1813

0.0119

Standard

Children

error

under 6

CPS Outgoing Rotation Group, worked last week = 1

No Year Children children Difference

March CPS, worked last year = 1

Children

under 6

No

children Difference

No

children Difference

Standard

error

Sources. The data are from the 1984 –1996 Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group File (ORG) and the 1985–1997 March Current Population Survey (March CPS) and are weighted.

Restrictions. Both samples include 19 –44 year-old single women (divorced, widowed, or never married) who are not in school. The March CPS sample excludes disabled or ill women and those with positive earned income but zero hours of work. In the second panel, single mothers without a child under six are excluded. See text for details.

policy decisions since its average captures the fraction of women working in a given week. This variable will be especially useful if those who move in or out of the workforce, on the margin, work only a few weeks during the year. On the other hand, as discussed earlier, the EITC unequivocally increases the probability of work-

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