QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
EIDP is the earned income deduction percentage (0.18
prior to 1986, 0.20 starting in 1986),
MB is the maximum Food Stamp benet,
SD is the standard deduction,
SE is shelter expenses,
SEDC is the shelter expense deduction ceiling.
Tax and welfare variables (and earned and unearned income variables) are adjusted for state cost of living differences using the poverty threshold index for 1990 from National Research Council , which is adjusted annually using the PCE dea- tor. The poverty threshold index accounts for housing cost differ- ences between states using Census housing cost data.
Sources for Taxes, Welfare, and Medicaid
We obtain the federal income tax schedules from the U. S. Department of the Treasury [various years]. The state tax infor- mation was obtained from four sources: the Advisory Committee on Intergovernmental Relations [various years], the Commerce Clearing House [various years], unpublished data from the Cen- ter on Budget Policy and Priorities, and Feenberg and Coutts . The AFDC program parameters are obtained from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (Characteristics of State Plans [various years]) and unpublished data from the Urban Institute. The Food Stamp parameters come from the U. S. House of Representatives (Green Book [various years]) and the U. S. Department of Agriculture [various years]. The Medicaid program information is obtained from three sources: the National Governor’s Association [various dates], the Intergovernmental Health Policy Project [various years], and the U. S. House of Representatives [Medicaid Source Book 1988, 1993]. Medicaid dollar values (separately for adults and children) come from un- published tables from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA).
B. Welfare Waiver Variables
c Any Time Limit is one starting with the implementation month of a waiver that imposes mandatory work require- ments on families that reach time limits or results in the reduction or total loss of AFDC payments after a certain time limit has been reached (usually two years).