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THE LABOR SUPPLY OF SINGLE MOTHERS

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c Any Terminations is one beginning with the month in which a case is rst terminated under a welfare waiver. c Major Waiver Application is one beginning with the month in which a state rst applies for a major statewide waiver. Note that these variables are always zero for women without AFDC children.

Sources for Welfare Waiver Variables

The waiver variables we used are based on our reading of the waiver summaries in General Accounting Ofce [1997], the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services [1997c], and Savner and Greenberg [1997]. These sources generally have the imple- mentation dates of waivers. We also consulted American Public Welfare Association [1996], Levine and Whitmore [1998], and U. S. Department of Health and Human Services [1997a]. Our classication scheme follows most closely the classication schemes in General Accounting Ofce [1997] and the U. S. De- partment of Health and Human Services [1997c].

C. Training Program Variables

These variables measure variation across states and over time in federal and state spending on welfare-to-work programs and on eligibility criteria. These numbers are based on the state level scal year WIN (Work Incentive) program expenditures and state level scal year JOBS (Job Opportunities and Basic Skills) program expenditures by component (job search, education, etc.). We calculate spending per female AFDC adult who is not exempt from participation based on the age of her youngest child. The dollars are then divided by the state average wage to obtain an amount of services provided. 26

We calculate the distribution of the age of the youngest child, and we apportion total JOBS spending to women using the frac- tion of participants who are female adults. We divide spending into two categories: education which includes education, postsec- ondary education, and self-initiated education; and other which includes job search, job development and placement, on-the-job training, work supplementation, community work experience, self-initiated training, job skills, job readiness, and assessment and employability plan. For scal year 1990 it is necessary to

26. The state average wage is average hourly wage for manufacturing in the state. It is normalized so that the 1996 value = 1.00.

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