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1110

QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS

extrapolate WIN expenditures forward and JOBS expenditures backward to the date when the JOBS program began in a given state. We also extrapolate 1985 WIN data back to 1984, and scal year 1996 forward to the rst three months of scal year 1997.

Note that the training variables are zero for women without AFDC children and women with children young enough to ex- empt the mother from participation in WIN or JOBS.

Sources for Training Variables

JOBS/WIN expenditure data come from unpublished U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U. S. Depart- ment of Labor tabulations, and the U. S. House of Representa- tives (Green Book [various years]). To calculate the distribution of the age of youngest child for single mothers, we use data from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (Characteristics of AFDC Recipients [various years]) and authors’ calculations from the March CPS. Wage data come from the Bureau of Labor Statistics web site.

D. Child Care Variable

Child Care expenditures are actual federal and state expen- ditures by state on the following four programs: AFDC Child Care, Transitional Child Care, At-Risk Child Care, and Child Care and Development Block Grants. Expenditures are put on a per-person basis by dividing through by the number of unmarried women with children less than six. This denominator is calcu- lated using annual data on the number of women by state (from the Census Bureau) and the fraction of women in a state who are unmarried with children less than six, which is calculated from the ORG over the entire 1984 –1996 period. Like training dollars, the resulting dollar value is then divided by the state average wage to obtain an amount of services provided.

Note that the child care variable is always zero for women without children less than six.

Sources for Child Care Variable

Child Care expenditures come from unpublished U. S. De- partment of Health and Human Service tabulations. Annual data on the number of women by state come from the U. S. Census Bureau. The fraction of women in a state who are unmarried with children less than six is calculated from the ORG by the authors. Wage data come from the Bureau of Labor Statistics web site.

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