K and O). The fibres were much longer and had forked, acuminate, one side tapering, and cleft tips (Figs. K to N). The average length of the fibres was 650 μm, and the wall thickness was 7.53 μm. The average diameter of the fibres was 9.85 μm, with a lumen width of 2.62 μm. Fibre wall lamellations varied from 4 to 5 layers. Pitting was uniseriate in vtkf (Fig. K) and biseriate in tkf. Thin walled (Tnf) and very thin walled fibres (vtnf) were the major fibres in the core region (Figs. N and P), although thick-walled and very thick walled fibres were also found. Pitting was biseriate in thin walled fibres and uniseriate in thick walled fibres. The average length and width of the core fibres was between 799.3 μm and 9.35 μm, and the wall thickness was 4.15 μm respectively, with a lumen width of 5.2 μm (Table 2). TEM studies revealed that the fibre walls possess several primary and secondary wall layers with a compound middle lamella. The region appeared black and darkly stained (Figs. Q and R). The fibre dimensions were used to calculate the slenderness ratio (SR), flexibility ratio (FR), and Runkel ratio (RR) of the rind and core fibres. The rind fibres had an SR of 66, an FR of 26.59, and RR of 5.74, and the core fibres had a high SR of 85.48, a high FR of 55.61, and a low RR of 1.59, when compared to the rind fibres as presented (Table 2).
Table 2. Fiber Dimensions and Derived Values of Rind and Core Fiber
Macerates from Cyperus pangorei
Runkel Ratio (RR)
Physico-Mechanical Properties of Culm Strands
The physico-mechanical parameters were determined for the processed culm strands used in mat making viz., 50 count dyed, 100 count dyed, 120 count dyed, and 120 count un-dyed (Fig. B). Properties such as actual (breaking) strength, tex count, percent elongation, breaking force, and tenacity were determined (Table 3). The breaking strength (weight in grams for 25 strands) was highest for 50 count dyed (1920.9 g) and lowest for 120 count dyed (772.1 g). The percentage elongation (7.37) and tenacity
g /tex), was highest for 120 count un-dyed strands, followed by 100 count dyed
g/tex), 120 count dyed (6.92 g/tex), and 50 count dyed (4.99 g/tex) strands
respectively. Breaking force in joules was maximum for 100 count dyed, followed by 120 count un-dyed, 120 count dyed, and 50 count dyed. However, when the values were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, the F value was 0.10 at 5 % level of significance, which was less than the table value of 3.86. Correlation analysis revealed that the breaking strength was negatively correlated with the tenacity and elongation (r = - 0.085; r = - 0.23), whereas elongation percent and tenacity were positively correlated (r = 0.98), which means that when the weight (actual strength in grams) increases the elongation percent and tenacity decrease and vice versa. Elongation percentage and tenacity in turn influence each other positively.
Benazir et al. (2010). “Sedge fibers and strands,” BioResources 5(2), 951-967.