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studies address the effectiveness of online courses as a whole. For example, Cahill &

Cantanzaro (1997) researched an introductory online Spanish class that integrated multi-

media technologies. The technology options included synchronous chat sessions, open-

ended web assignments, practice tests, and pen pal writing assignments. The study

compared the responses to two essay questions from both a traditional face-to-face class

and an online experimental group. There was significant difference between the writing

abilities of the online students versus on campus students. This study did not, however,

show a direct correlation between being online and the improved writing nor did it

involve rigorous data collection. Another Spanish language study conducted by Blake

and Delforge (2005) compared online versus on campus courses using discrete grammar

exams. In their study, the online students did significantly better on the discrete grammar

exams

than

did

their

campus

counterparts.

The

study

by

Soo

and

Ngeow

(1998)

investigated pre and posttest TOEFL scores of English language learners in on campus

classes, and they compared these scores with those of learners working online. The

online learners did significantly better than those on campus, and they did so in a shorter

period of time.

There has been some research in Web 2.0 technologies and learning in K-12

settings. In a study done by the National School Boards Association (2007) it was

reported that online sharing by students‘ in social network sites involves both learning

and education. Sixty percent of students surveyed reported using their social network sites

in order to discuss educational topics in general, and fifty percent reported talking

specifically about their schoolwork (National School Boards Association, 2007).

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