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34

however cannot be separated from emotion since both influence cognitive load.

Motivation and emotion can increase the allocation of working memory resources

provided that these are regulated (Brooks & Shell, 2007). The factors that create

motivation vary from student to student but many motivators are explained through such

theories as Human Capital Theory (Becker, 1964), Attribution Theory with an

educational emphasis (Weiner, 2000), Flow Theory (Chan & Ahern, 1999) and Social

Learning Theory (Bandura, 1963). These theories provide evidence that motivation is a

key element in the learning process. Many scientists and theorists have explained the

origin of these motivators and how they are apparent in a classroom setting. One thread

that is apparent in all theories is that motivation and learning cannot be separated from

emotion and engagement. As Graham (1991) wrote, ―A viable theory of motivation for

educational psychology must be able to incorporate emotions. After all, the classroom is

a place of multiple affective experiences with motivational significance, including those

feelings associated with achievement success or failure, as well as acceptance or rejection

by others‖ (p. 16). According to Rueda and Chen (2005) these motivational factors vary

across cultural and ethnic groups. The Unified Learning Model (ULM) by Brooks and

Shell (2007) describe that there are individual differences as to the amount of allocation

of engagement an individual gives to a particular item to be learned. Ellis and Ashbrook

(1988) suggested the resource allocation hypothesis which states that one‘s performance

on a task is dependent not on the amount of working memory capacity a person may

have, but rather on the extent to which that working memory capacity is being allocated

to the task. The motivational beliefs/factors differ but all groups still have motivation and

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