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the way religious expression can be interpreted: a participant can make an interpretation in a literal or symbolic way. Hence, this dimension can be seen as a kind of cognitive comprehension: the way in which religious contents are processed. As a result four quadrants can be formulated (Figure 1). Each of these quadrants covers a specific way of approach to religion: Literal Affirmation, Literal Disaffirmation, Symbolic Affirmation (also called Reductive Interpretation), and Symbolic Disaffirmation (also called Restorative Interpretation).

Figure 1

Wulff’s Model (1991, 1997)

INCLUSION

LITERAL

 AFFIRMATION

LITERAL

SYMBOLIC AFFIRMATION

SYMBOLIC

LITERAL

DISAFFIRMATION

SYMBOLIC DISAFFIRMATION

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