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                                                         EXCLUSION

Participants in the first quadrant, Literal Affirmation, are persons who affirm the literal existence of a transcendent reality. Participants in the second quadrant, Literal Disaffirmation, are persons who deny the literal existence of a transcendent reality. People in these two quadrants can both be considered as fundamentalists. Participants who don’t believe in a transcendent reality, but who nevertheless hold the possibility of a symbolic meaning of words, should be located in the third quadrant, Symbolic Disaffirmation. Finally, people in the last quadrant, Symbolic Affirmation, affirm the existence of a transcendent reality, but at the same time they try to encompass and transcend reductive interpretations in order to find a symbolic meaning that has personal relevance in the religious language. Hutsebaut (1996) constructed the Post-Critical Belief Scale (PCB) as an operationalisation of Wulff’s heuristic model (1991). In this model there are four scales: Orthodoxy, External Critique, Relativism, and Second Naivité. These scales are considered to be equivalent to the four quadrants of Wulff’s model, respectively Literal Affirmation, Literal Disaffirmation, Symbolic Affirmation, and Symbolic Disaffirmation. Duriez, Fontaine, & Hutsebaut (2000) have shown that the four scales of the PCB provide accurate measures of Wulff’s model. Duriez, Soenens, & Beyers (2003), Fontaine et al. (2002) have shown that two dimensions, as in the above-mentioned proposition, are sufficient to explain the empirical relation between the items of the PCB.

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