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confirmed Eysenck’s finding. Religious people tend to score lower on Psychoticism (Francis, 1992a, 1992b, 1993; Francis & Katz, 1992; Francis & Perason, 1993; Francis & Wilcox, 1994; Lewis & Joseph, 1994; Lewis & Maltby, 1995, 1996; Maltby, 1999a, 1999b). Research concerning the other two dimensions resulted in inconsistent leading researchers to conclude that these factors are unrelated to religiosity (Eysenck, 1998; Francis, 1992b).

Studies using the Five-Factor Model of personality produced a slightly different result. In many studies (see the meta-analysis of Saroglou, 2002; Kosek, 1999, 2000; Taylor & McDonald, 1999), religiousness is positively related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, although these correlations are low (Saroglou, 2002) or sometimes even absent (Streyffeler & McNally, 1998; Saucier & Goldberg, 1998). This also confirms the hypothesis of the low correlation between Psychoticism and religion in the Three Factor Model. Although in most of the studies no significant relation between religion and other factors of the Five Factor Model (Saroglou, 2002) has been found, other studies suggest that religious people should be situated high on some of the other factors as well (Duriez, 2002; McCrae, 1999; Taylor & MacDonald, 1999). Religiosity was weakly correlated with Extraversion, and there was a small but significant effect size regarding Openness to Experience (Saroglou, 2002). Saroglou (2002) as well McCrae (1996; 1999) mentioned the complex but clear pattern of relation between religion and Openness to Experience. Participants who have high scores on Openness to Experience are associated with “open and mature religion” (Saroglou, 2002). Saroglou (2002) also mentioned the striking result that religious fundamentalists are associated with low Openness to Experience. This factor has to be examined in further research. However, one should take into consideration that most of the above-mentioned results have been found in studies in which researchers have been working with a uni-dimensional model. The innovative aspect of the Post-Critical Belief Scale is the proposed two-dimensional structure of religiosity. Although in line with previous research,

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