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We expect the same pattern for the factor Agreeableness. We presuppose that individuals, who are dealing with religious texts on a very symbolic way (Relativism- and Second Naivité), score higher on the factor Agreeableness than those individuals who are situated in the other groups. Previous research suggested that this personality trait is correlated positively with liberal thinking (McCrae, 1999), as well with empathy (Duriez, 2002). Moreover, these two variables also correlate in a positive way with symbolic thinking. Based on the meta-analysis of Saroglou (2002) in which was mentioned that religious people have higher scores on Conscientiousness tan non-religious people, we propose the hypothesis that individuals who believe in a transcendent reality (Orthodoxy and Second Naivité) score higher on this factor than people who don’t (External Critique and Relativism).

Since the results of previous research on the factors Extraversion and Neuroticism were very inconsistent, we don’t formulate any hypotheses concerning these two factors.



Participants were 336 students who attend higher education in Belgium, ranging in age from 19 to 26 with a mean of 20, and where 50% are female. All participants were Flemish-speaking and have Belgian nationality. Participation was not obligatory and no course credit was given. Anonymity and confidentiality were guaranteed, in line with Belgian privacy laws. In this sample, 10.8% of the participants attend religious services regularly (at least once a month, compared to about 10% in the general Flemish population according to the Belgian Office of Church Statistics). Church is attended from time to time (less than once a month) by 22.6 % of the participants and hardly ever by 66.7% of the participants. In this sample, 87.2%

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