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characterized by known information objectives and unknown sources. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 78-79)


A model is an abstraction of a physical object or a process. It can be visualization, a diagram or char, or a mathematical or program representation. Many products of knowledge work require that models be constructed either as an output or to guide the knowledge work task. At some level, almost all design involves representation and modeling. Planning involves generating alternatives. Selected options must be sequenced and resource implications analyzed. Planning helps knowledge workers identify a set of tasks that must be accomplished in a particular order. Organizing involves identifying and arranging the resources necessary to complete a plan and defining responsibilities. Scheduling associates planned activities with available resources. The schedule specifies when each activity is to begin and when it should be completed. It identifies the person or organization responsible for each. Authoring is creating an output in the form of a document, presentation, procedure, or program. Documents can be created in various formats, such as reports, analyses, memoranda, or minutes. Almost every knowledge work output involves some authoring. The result of authoring can include text, graphics, multimedia presentations, flowcharts, or programs. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 79)

Making Decisions

Formulating involves defining a problem correctly and completely. It includes recognizing symptoms that suggest a problem and distinguishing between real and apparent problems. Analyzing involves enumerating and evaluating alternatives. The analysis may be both quantitative and qualitative. Choosing involves selecting from alternatives according to some criteria. There may be a single criterion or multiple criteria. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 80)


Presenting involves delivering and transferring information. Delivery can take a variety of forms. These include printed reports, electronic messages, files sent to others, multimedia computer presentations, and oral presentations. Persuading involves chancing the beliefs of others. It may include presenting information organized with arguments and lines of reasoning to persuade the receiver. Motivating people means energizing other to action. Although it may include both presenting and persuading communicating, additional elements are often included. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 81

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