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and establish an expected pace for the work. In knowledge work, there may be some organization standards and procedures, such as deadlines for reports, requirements for evidence of progress, and expectations about outputs. These factors provide some incentives for work completion, but quality of work and timely completion depend largely on self-management and self-pacing. (Davies, 2002. 68-69)

The most productive knowledge workers tend to employ the most efficient work flow and work methods. More important, they tend to be better at managing the use of their time, attention, and motivation. Knowledge work productivity depends on good self-management. For example, a very productive knowledge worker will schedule for productivity (schedule important, high-productivity work activities to occur during times of high energy and attention), schedule for motivation (create motivation by frequent, short-term deadlines), and manage demands for attention (because a knowledge worker has limited attention resources and an oversupply of inputs to process). (Davies, 2002. 68-69)

The value of unlimited computing access may depend on the knowledge work tasks. Knowledge workers whose tasks involve obtaining data from a variety of locations, activities, and people (such as a scheduler of production activities) are likely to benefit from anytime/anyplace computing and communications facilities. Less-certain benefits may be achieved if the knowledge work being performed is dependent on concentrated effort without interruptions. (Davies, 2002. 68-69)

4.4KNOWLEDGE WORKER CONSTRAINTS IN THE PRODUCTIVE

USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) (DRURY & FARHOOMAND) Productivity in economic terms is the quantity of output divided by the quantity of inputs. Effectiveness is when a goal, objective, or target is met and efficiency, the degree to which inputs are used in relation to a given level of outputs. Effectiveness consists of doing the right things and efficiency of doing things right. (Drury & Farhoomand, 1999. 22)

Drury & Farhoomand (1999) have made empirical research with questionnaire to find out knowledge workers thoughts about knowledge work constraints and ideas to reduce these constraints. They present four main constraints issues (technical issues, information issues,

infrastructure issues and task issues), which prevent knowledge worker to improve productivity with IT. Technical issues such as speed of the hardware, frequency of down time, flexibility of computer systems, and the cost of the hardware could discourage use of computers in improving productivity. Information issues include: difficulty in identifying relevant sources of information, information overload and language barriers. One area of issues arises from organization

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