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infrastructure. Organization can prevent successful IT implementation with a lack of top management support and organizational resources. The nature of task has been found to affect IT utilization. The domain of knowledge workers is semi or unstructured tasks. These tasks are undertaken at irregular intervals and tend to be creatively confronted each time they arise due to their complexity. This makes the effective utilization of IT difficult to achieve. However, most of the constraints to IT seem to have a psychological basis. Attitudes towards working with computers directly affect the level of computer usage. (Drury & Farhoomand, 1999. 23-26)

In the research Drury & Farhoomand found that the primary area of constraints is infrastructure, followed by technical issues and information issues. Task issues are relatively minor constraints. One extra issue was identified: systems cost which is an important problem, especially in small to medium companies. The most common constraints were: lack of training, technical infrastructure,

technical support, top management support, system breakdown, speed, information format,

information accessibility, information quality and information overload. (Drury & Farhoomand,

1999. 29-30)

Knowledge worker primary solution to reduce constraints of IT infrastructure was better quality training to reduce the level of user illiteracy. Other solutions for IT infrastructure were: management’s attitude, IT strategy, add IT people, outsourcing, restructure IT team, resources and

organization structure review & study, culture of change, consultancy and communication –user &

IT. Solutions for technical issues were: hardware upgrade, technical support, resources, backup and system monitoring standardization and outsourcing. Solutions for information issues were: information standardization, system administration, user involvement, networking, information

training and information management team. And solutions for task issues were: task training, understand end users’ needs, users participation, select system, request analysis, upgrading and re- engineering. (Drury & Farhoomand, 1999. 32-35)

4.5SUMMARY There are several reasons for the difficulty o f measuring knowledge worker performance. The measuring of knowledge work should be contextual. Organization’s objectives set up rules for the quality of the knowledge work products. Knowledge work productivity should be evaluated with the objectives of the certain knowledge worker. General evaluation criteria are hard to establish. Knowledge work productivity seems also to depend on good self-management.

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