various people according to their various skills, and coming off the end as finished knowledge products. (Bereiter, 2002.chapter 6)
1.2SIX KINDS OF PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE (BEREITER) In cognitive psychology a distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge and explicit and implicit memory is supported with evidence. For a practical theory of mind, the issue is what kinds of knowledge it is useful to distinguish. Practically speaking, how many kinds of knowledge are worth distinguishing? Under the influence of cognitive science, the currently favored number is two: knowing-that and knowing-how, better known in cognitive science circles as declarative and procedural knowledge. In educational terms, therefore, there is a need to be able to distinguish two kinds of knowledge at one stage of learning but also to hold as an objective that these two kinds of knowledge will come together and form a third. The possibility of covering all knowledge by two types does not, however, mean that we should do so. We can have as many kinds of knowledge as we like. By an argument analogous to the one that explains why Eskimos need to distinguish many kinds for snow, it can be maintained that educators and others who work extensively with knowledge need to distinguish many kinds of knowledge. (Bereiter, 2002. chapter 5)
Bereiter (2002) presents six kinds of personal knowledge: 1) statable, 2), implicit understanding, 3)
episodic knowledge, 4) impressionistic knowledge, 5) skill, and 6) regulative knowledge.
Statable knowledge is knowledge that the knower can actually put into some explicit form – usually sentences, but possibly diagrams, etc. – such that it can be conveyed, argued about, compared to alternatives, and evaluated by others. It is part of what cognitive scientists refer to as declarative ‘knowledge’. It is the explicit part. Statable knowledge can be discussed. Statable knowledge is personal knowledge that we can objectify and thus bring into social processes of knowledge building. (Bereiter, 2002. chapter 5)
Implicit understanding is knowledge gained from experience and it probably owes little or nothing to formal education. Work on expert system, knowledge engineering, and expertise has led to a heightened appreciation of the role for knowledge that people apparently have and use but cannot state. Unstated, tacit, or implicit knowledge covers a very wide range, however. Implicit understanding is not knowing that the world is round but seeing the world as round. Implicit understanding is neither a skill nor knowledge you can find from books. (Bereiter, 2002. chapter 5)