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Regulative Knowledge

The general idea is that in any realm of activity there is knowledge that pertains to yourself as a factor in that activity. Regulative knowledge is knowledge of yourself, not only how you function in the role but how to get yourself to function. It is knowledge of your own biases and shortcomings and how to take proper account of and deal with these things. There is also regulative knowledge that pertains to collective activity. Truth and objectivity are components of regulative knowledge. Bereiter sees regulative knowledge as covering a very wide range, from explicit principles to personal knowledge. (Bereiter, 2002. chapter 5)


NAUMANN) Knowledge is high-level, value-added information. Knowledge is not well defined because it is a compound construct consisting of multiple dimensions. The Knowledge and expertise that knowledge workers bring to activities for accomplishing a task have a significant impact on selection and use. This knowledge consists of four types: 1) formal (declarative) knowledge, 2)

procedural knowledge, 3) meta knowledge, and 4) impressionistic knowledge. (Davies & Naumann,

1 9 9 7 . 1 4 )

Formal (declarative) knowledge

Formal knowledge is general knowledge of problem solving and definitions, general principles, concepts, and procedures related to a domain of work. It is the type of knowledge that is structured and communicated by textbooks and courses. Formal or declarative knowledge of methods of problem-solving is applicable to broad classes of problems. General problem-solving knowledge is often knowledge of processes that help organize and transform data. Formal problem-solving knowledge sometimes provides a basis for creativity because seemingly unrelated knowledge is searched for analogies and insights. When these are found, new creative solutions may result. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 14-15)

Procedural knowledge

Procedural knowledge is knowledge about how to do something. It is more informal and not as easily communicated by lecture or textbook. It is the ability to make effective and efficient use of the most appropriate tools and techniques available. It tends to be associated with a specific domain of work – tasks or activities. Depending upon the knowledge work task, procedural knowledge may be as simple as using a work processor or as complex as designing an integer programming solution. There is a connection between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. When

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